What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?


The number of people around the world suffering from diabetes has skyrocketed in the last two decades, from 30 million to 230 million, claiming millions of lives and severely taxing the ability of health care systemsto deal with the epidemic, according to data released Saturday by the International Diabetes Federation.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which your body cannot properly store and use fuel for energy. The fuel that your body needs is called glucose, a form of sugar. Glucose comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables. To use glucose, your body needs insulin. Insulin is made by a gland in your body called the pancreas. There are three types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes only occurs during pregnancy.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous clinical disorder with numerous causes. Two main classifications of diabetes mellitus exist, idiopathic and secondary.

Idiopathic diabetes is divided into two main types; insulin dependent and non-insulin-depenedent. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM (Type 1) is defined by the development of ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Type 1 diabetes most often manifests in childhood (hence also called juvenile onset diabetes) and is the result of an autoimmune destruction of the b-cells of the pancreas. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM (Type 2) is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia but rarely leads to ketoacidosis. Type 2 diabetes generally manifests after age 40 and therefore has the obsolete name of adult onset-type diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can result from genetics defects that cause both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. There are two main forms of type 2 diabetes:

1. Late onset associated with obesity.
2. Late onset not associated with obesity.

Sample meal plan

Choose foods you like and which satisfy you, and include carbohydrate foods in each meal or snack to help manage blood glucose levels. You can eat your main meal at lunch or dinner.

Get help immediately if Diabetes symptoms occur

Occasionally, the onset of diabetes – particularly Type 1 – can be abrupt. It can lead to a condition called ‘keto acidosis’, which is a medical emergency. The symptoms of this condition are loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, excessive passing of urine, altered consciousness and, finally, coma. Seek medical help immediately if these symptoms occur.

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Think You May Have Diabetes?

Think You May Have Diabetes?

Las complicaciones de la Diabetes mal controlada
Source: Flickr

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not properly control the amount of sugar in the blood stream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood is too high. This disease occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it properly.

The symptoms of diabetes should be recognized. Recognizing a symptom or sign for diabetes is important – diabetes can be life-threatening. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin in the body or by the inability to utilize the insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which regulates blood sugar levels. Over 15 million people the US alone suffer from diabetes.

The main types of diabetes are:

Type 1 diabetes (often called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes) – is a chronic (lifelong) disease that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin to regulate blood sugar levels appropriately.

Type 2 diabetes (often called adult or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) – is the most common form of diabetes. About 90 to 95 percent of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either not produce enough insulin or their bodies do not utilize the insulin made. Most of the people who have this type of diabetes are overweight.

Gestational Diabetes – is high blood glucose that develops during pregnancy in a woman.

How would you know if you might have diabetes?

The most common symptoms of diabetes include – fatigue, increased appetite, increased thirst, blurred vision, frequent urination, slow healing infections and even impotence in adult males.

By exhibiting any of these signs does not necessarily mean you have diabetes though. The best way to determine this is to visit your doctor and request the fasting blood glucose level test. Diabetes is diagnosed if this test shows the blood glucose level is higher than 126 mg/dl on two different tests.

There is no cure for diabetes at the moment, so what should one do if diagnosed with diabetes? The objectives are to keep your blood sugars stabilized as much as possible. By maintaining a balanced blood sugar level, you can eliminate any possibility of immediate or semi-immediate problems – in turn… prolonging ones life.

Remember, life doesn’t stop because you have diabetes; it merely becomes more of a challenge. The good news on the other hand is the cure for diabetes may not be that far off. Until then, keep your blood sugars regulated, eat right and exercise daily.

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Four Types Of Diabetes! Which Are You?

Four Types Of Diabetes! Which Are You?

Diabetes UK runners - 2018 Edinburgh Marathon.
Source: Flickr


Type 1 diabetes
Results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, the hormone that unlocks the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter and fuel them.
It is estimated that 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.

Having type 1 diabetes increases your risk for many serious complications. Some complications of type 1 diabetes include: heart disease (cardiovascular disease), blindness (retinopathy), nerve damage (neuropathy), and kidney damage (nephropathy).

Type 2 diabetes
Results from insulin resistance (a condition in which the body fails to properly use insulin), combined with relative insulin deficiency. Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Having type 2 diabetes increases your risk for many serious complications. Some complications of type 2 diabetes include: heart disease (cardiovascular disease), blindness (retinopathy), nerve damage (neuropathy), and kidney damage (nephropathy). Learn more about these complications and how to cope with them.

Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes affects about 4% of all pregnant women – about 135,000 cases in the United States each year.

Because gestational diabetes can hurt you and your baby, you need to start treatment quickly. Treatment for gestational diabetes aims to keep blood glucose levels equal to those of pregnant women who don’t have gestational diabetes. Treatment for gestational diabetes always includes special meal plans and scheduled physical activity. It may also include daily blood glucose testing and insulin injections. You will need help from your doctor, nurse educator, and other members of your health care team so that your treatment for gestational diabetes can be changed as needed.

For the mother-to-be, treatment for gestational diabetes helps lower the risk of a cesarean section birth that very large babies may require. Sticking with your treatment for gestational diabetes will give you a healthy pregnancy and birth, and may help your baby avoid future poor health. (see Diabetes Symptoms)

Pre-diabetes
Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. There are 41 million Americans who have pre-diabetes, in addition to the 20.8 million with diabetes.

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Diabetes–What You Need to Know About This Hidden Danger

Diabetes–What You Need to Know About This Hidden Danger

Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose (sugar) for our bodies to burn to create energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, produces a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes large amounts of sugar to build up in your blood.
The actual cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity appear to play major roles. Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations. According to the Center for Disease Control, diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. As of 2002, 18.2 million people in the U.S.–6.3 percent of the population–had diabetes, with 1.3 million new cases being diagnosed each year. The National Institutes of Health also estimate that an additional 5.2 million people have diabetes without actually being aware of it.
There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for about 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, which was called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes, accounts for the remaining 90%. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that only pregnant women get. If not treated, it can cause problems for both the baby and the mother. Gestational diabetes develops in 2% to 5% of all pregnancies, but usually disappears when the pregnancy is over.
Diabetes is a serious disease and phrases such as “a touch of diabetes” or “your blood sugar is a little high” tend to dismiss the fact that diabetes is a major killer of Americans. In addition to the lives that are lost, diabetes has a tremendous economic impact in the United States. The National Diabetes Education Program estimates the cost of diabetes in 2002 was $132 billion. Of this amount, $92 billion was due to direct medical costs and $40 billion due to indirect costs such as lost workdays, restricted activity, and disability due to diabetes. The average medical expenditure for a person with diabetes was $13,243, or 5.2 times greater than the cost for a person without diabetes. In addition, 11 percent of national health care expenditures went to diabetes care.
In response to this growing health burden of diabetes, the diabetes community has three choices: prevent diabetes; cure diabetes; and improve the quality of care of people with diabetes to prevent devastating complications. All three approaches are being actively pursued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Many government agencies, at all levels, are involved in educational campaigns in an attempt to prevent diabetes, especially type 2. Several approaches to “cure” diabetes are also being pursued: pancreas transplantation, islet cell transplantation (islet cells in the pancreas produce insulin), the development of an artificial pancreas, and genetic manipulation where fat or muscle cells that do not normally make insulin have a human insulin gene inserted and are then transplanted into people with type 1 diabetes.
While there is yet no cure for diabetes, healthy eating, physical activity, and insulin injections are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. For those with type 2 diabetes, treatment includes healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Many people with type 2 may require oral medication to control their glucose levels. People with diabetes must take personal responsibility for their day-to-day care, and keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. The key to living a long and healthy life with diabetes is to learn about the disease, exercise daily, follow a diabetes food plan (right portions of healthy foods, less salt and fat), stop smoking, take prescribed medications, get routine medical care, brush your teeth and floss every day, monitor your blood glucose the way the doctor tells you to and remain positive. Using the correct routines, thousands of people with diabetes have lived long, happy and productive lives.

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Can’t Lose Weight? It May Not Be Your Fault!

Can’t Lose Weight? It May Not Be Your Fault!

Are you frustrated with your weight problem and don’t know what to do about it? Do you find that you lose weight at first, only to gain it all back later, and maybe more when you stop dieting, or when you find yourself bingeing? Are you fed up with weight loss programs that don’t work?
There is a good reason for that. You don’t lack willpower. You are not doing anything wrong. It is just that dieting doesn’t work!
Facts About Dieting
* Dieting rarely works. 95% of all dieters who lose weight regain their lost weight and more within 1 to 5 years.
* Dieting can lead to eating disorders. The obsession to be thin can lead to anorexia, bulimia, bingeing and compulsive exercising.
* Dieting impacts your mental health and restricts your brainpower, leaving you mentally unfocused.
* Dieting robs you of energy and slows your metabolism down.
* Numerous studies link chronic dieting with feelings of depression, low self-esteem and increased stress.
* Dieting increases compulsive eating.
* You are fatter after a diet than before!
Why Dieting Doesn’t Work
Quick fix diets usually never give long lasting results. The reason is most of the weight loss is due to loss of water. When you restrict calories, your body interprets it as impending starvation. When the body is under stress of starvation, it hoards the fat and burns the muscles first. The weight lost comes from water and the break down of muscles – the places we don’t want to lose it from.
So, the last thing you want to do is drastically cut calories.
When you do, the body will start breaking down muscle protein to produce energy for vital body functions. The body will use muscle protein as fuel, before it starts burning fat, so you end up losing more muscle mass than fat during dieting. The body then uses large amounts of water to flush the broken down muscle tissue out. Thus you lose weight fast. No matter how much you drink, you can’t prevent this loss of water. The only way to get control of your water balance is to stop starving yourself.
When dieting, the body starts saving energy by turning some functions off and running others at a slower pace. Fat is designed to provide the body with energy and protect it from starvation. If you go below 1000 calories a day, your body will slow your metabolism down to compensate. That is why weight loss slows down dramatically after a few days on a crash diet. And a slow metabolism is exactly the opposite of what you want to lose weight.
Another reason that diets don’t work is bingeing. Bingeing doesn’t happen because of a lack of willpower. It is a direct result of dieting. As your body senses a restriction in calories, it goes on the alert for an impending threat to survival. As a result, it tells you to eat, which results in your bingeing on calorie and fat filled foods. The more successful you are at starving yourself, the more the body will increase it’s efforts to eat more foods. Eventually the body wins because survival is our strongest instinct. Bingeing is also a result of depriving yourself of something, which psychologically makes you obsessed with what you can’t have.
After the Diet
After the quick weight loss diet you go back to your normal eating pattern, and what happens? The body that has shut off functions in order to conserve energy is now, suddenly, fed. The cells in your body have an immediate response to the sudden abundance of food, and that is to keep on saving energy, storing up for the next famine. As your body saves energy, it also begins storing all the extra energy – as fat. So, you end up having lost fat burning lean muscle tissue and added more fat! That wasn’t your goal when you started your diet.
In addition to building fat again, the body has no ketone-bodies to get rid of. Consequently, less water is secreted and your water balance is restored. As you replenish your emptied water stores you rapidly gain back the weight you lost. So, by building fat, and replenishing water, you will gain weight quickly the first few days after a diet.
And each time you diet, you are teaching your body how to deal with starvation by hoarding fat, so each round of dieting increases your overall body fat!
Freedom from Dieting
So, how can you lose weight if dieting and restricting calories don’t work? There is no quick fix answer. Any healthy weight loss needs to come gradually. The goal is to give up dieting forever and get back in balance. Stop trying to lose weight. No more counting calories. Instead make a commitment to get healthier.
When you get off the diet roller coaster, you will feel better, become healthier and lose the weight for good. When the body is well fed with healthy foods, it will shed the extra fat. It doesn’t have to store it anymore. And when you give the body the nutrients it needs to be healthy, you stop having all the cravings for less healthy foods.
Enjoy the freedom from counting calories. You will find yourself moving slowly and safely to your perfect body weight, and you will feel better than you ever have before, lean and full of vitality, energy and health. This means developing some new healthy eating habits, as well as other health habits such as exercise.
Try to avoid extremes, such as eating a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. There are many complications associated with unbalanced low carbohydrate diet regimens. At the other end of the spectrum, some diets are saying avoid protein and fats, but eat as much carbohydrates as you want. Too much of the wrong kind of carbohydrates, especially refined sugar and white refined flour will turn to fat in the body also. Most commercial breads, breakfast cereals, and prepared foods are loaded with empty, fast-release carbohydrates, causing levels of blood-sugar to rise, leading to obesity and hypoglycemia.
All of the experts agree that unprocessed complex carbohydrates such as fruit and vegetables, whole grains, potatoes, and legumes are far superior to other forms of refined carbohydrates and should play a significant role in people’s eating habits. According to the American Heart Association, a healthy diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables along with regular physical activity can help most people manage and maintain weight loss for both cardiovascular health and appearance.
Losing weight and becoming healthier requires a lifestyle change, not a six week diet “quick fix”. The first step is to eat a balanced diet, filled with plenty of healthy foods, such as whole grains, fresh organic raw, fruits and vegetables, healthy fats and organic meats.

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All About Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Types.

All About Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Types.


While talking about diabetes, you may be frightened from the idea that you may have it.
Or maybe, you may have it in the future. You want to know if you are at risk to develop diabetes and anxiously you’re looking to find if you have any diabetes symptom.

Diabetes affects the manner in which the body handles carbohydrates, fats and proteins. If neglected, diabetes can have serious complications. The diabetic people have high blood sugar level. The blood sugar level is regulated by insulin – a hormone produced by the pancreas, which depends on your eating habits.

Diabetes is a serious disease. But the startling truth is that diabetes is reversible. Diabetes is the number one cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This disease is a condition where the body is unable to automatically regulate blood glucose levels, resulting in too much glucose (a sugar) in the blood. Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects as many as 16 million Americans.

Actually, there is no clear symptom for diabetes. The most common symptoms of diabetes are as follow:

– being all the time thirsty
– frequent urination
– increased hunger
– feeling all the time tired; having an excessive fatigue,

On the other hand, there are some other symptoms of diabetes that are prescribed as diabetes complications in fact. These symptoms are:

– vision changes;
– recurrent skin infections very difficult to heal;
– tingling or numbness you may feel in your extremities;
– gums disorders;
– Hair loss and many others.

There are two different types of diabetes.

Type I Diabetes (juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes): The reason for type I diabetes is due to pancreas unability to produce insulin.

Type II Diabetes (non insulin dependent diabetes or adult onset diabetes): This diabetes is a result of body tissues becoming resistant to insulin. It is usually hereditary.

Type 2 Diabetes is more common than Type 1 Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Conditions associated with type 2 diabetes include hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Up to two-thirds of people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Obesity is the single most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. An estimated 20% of all cases of new onset type 2 diabetes are in individuals between the ages of 9-19. The more you know about type 2 diabetes, the more you’ll be able to take the right steps to take control of your condition.

If neglected, diabetes can lead to various complications such as damage to the kidneys, heart disease, nerve damage, hypoglycemia (drastic reduction in glucose levels). Diabetes is a serious disease and there is no treatment of it. However, it can be brought under control by proper diabet diet.

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